SAMUEL ADLER, Director
Five schools participated as the Eastern Region in the 1966-67 IMCE program, and three new ones will be added for 1967-68. The Ithaca College program was completed in the spring of 1967. At New England Conservatory an attempt is made to expose the total student body (approximately 500) to IMCE principles of comprehensive musicianship through all available theory courses.
Region, Director and Administrative Center Institutions and Program Heads Eastman School of Music, Robert Gauldin EASTERN REGION Ithaca College, Donald Wells Samuel Adler New England Conservatory of Music, Robert Cogan Eastman School of Music State University of New York at Binghamton, Harpur College, Karl Korte State University of New York at Potsdam, Robert Washburn * Philadelphia Public Schools, Edwin Heilakka * Queens College, Leo Kraft * Villa Maria Institute of Music, Buffalo, New York, Allen Giles * Program starting September, 1967 Program completed
EASTMAN SCHOOL OF MUSIC
ROBERT GAULDIN, Program Head
(16 freshman music education majors)
A. Writing skills
- Two part texture. Included are the writing of cadence formulas; the addition of a bass line implying primary triads to a melody; writing of suspensions; an original piece (period) in two parts, and its elaboration with chord tones and non-harmonic tones; resolutions of V7; the addition of bass line and chords to a melody, modulating to related keys.
- Three and four part textures, chords. Included are spelling, analysis, and playing of primary triads; figured bass drills; the diminished triad; study and drill with V7; harmonization of melodies with primary triads; discussion of secondary triads and secondary dominantstonicization; beginning of traditional four part writing.
- Non-traditional techniques. Free modal harmonizations and "floating tonality"; small scale, freely chromatic pieces; notation of "speech rhythms" and derivation of melodies from these; bi-tonal two-part writing; poly-chords.
B. Form and Analysis
Emphasis on multiple systems of analysis (Schenker, Hansen, Hindemith, traditional). Different terms for musical devices (e.g. half, suspensive, semi-progressive cadence). Aim is to present the fundamental elements of music in a non-stylistic approach applicable to a variety of styles and historical periods. Included are study of phrase and period structure; tonal relationships in large forms; small ternary forms in relation to a variety of stylistic elements; strophic form; modulation and key relationships; various principles of variation.
Drills in conducting and performing complex metrical and rhythmical patterns; written work employing syncopation, super-imposed rhythms, cross accents, etc.; two part sight-singing; study of clefs.
Elementary harmonic dictation; "harmonic-melodic" dictation, first with primary triads, later secondary triads and secondary dominants. Examples drawn from a variety of styles, from chorale to rock-and-roll; interval and rhythmic dictation. Larger forms are also employed; students outline basic design on the first hearing, and details are filled out during subsequent hearings.
DONALD WELLS, Program Head
(14 freshmen, random selection)
The course began with the study of scale building (construction of tetra-chords) and key signatures. Melody was introduced through Gregorian chant, studied in terms of colour and talea, showing how the symmetry and asymmetry of one or both sets up tension or resolution in a melody. The modes were introduced through the study of chant. Without words, the class wrote several monophonic melodies in simple forms (later expanding these into more complex structures). Variations between sections were achieved through changes in the talea, colour, tonal center, etc. No bar lines were used.
Melodic dictation was introduced in various modes and meters. Conductor's beats were used both in the singing of examples and in dictation. Two-part writing was introduced through modal counterpoint (using the Soderlund texts). A study of the treatment of dissonance was undertaken. Various types of two-part canonic writing were tried. Analysis of the student's own works was extended to include considerations of form and musical content.
In conjunction with form and content the students were required to do reading in Langer's Feeling and Form. Along these lines an attempt has been made to show the relationship between the terminology and compositional problems of the artist in music, poetry, and art. Dr. John Harcourt gave five lectures on poetry, with emphasis on the form and sounds in a selected group of poems. The class was then given a poem to set to music in any manner they desired. Prints of paintings have been mounted and distributed on a rotating basis to the students. Lectures have also been given on how to listen to a concert and how to practice. There are frequent quizzes on musical symbols and terminology.
At the present time the students are writing three-part canons scored for instruments in the class, and performing them. Each student writes his own score, making the necessary transpositions, writes out the parts, and conducts the performance.
Besides one hour a week of piano class, the students also do exercises from Preparatory Exercises in Score Reading. Melodic dictation exercises are taken from The Folk Song Sight Singing Series, and these are also sung with solfege syllables. The students are also given exercises to prepare in advance.
One class was taken to explain and demonstrate the function of solfege with conductor's beat as meant by Jacques Dalcroze. A guest lecturer trained at the Dalcroze school will work for one class with eurhythmics exercises, and further explain the Dalcroze system and what it attempts to accomplish.
NEW ENGLAND CONSERVATORY
ROBERT COGAN, Program Head
(all theory students)
A. Ear Training
A two-year sequence designed to train students to comprehend and project both specific details of a piece, and its underlying conceptions. Stylistic variety, including contemporary works; analytic techniques taught in the compositional techniques courses (B) are closely paralleled in the ear-training sections, so that the student's perception of any one element of a piece is placed in the framework of a larger understanding of the work. Musical works rather than exercises are used, and the original instrumentation is retained. Taped musical excerpts, scores, and other materials are being prepared.
In the first year, intervals and tonal melodies lead to dealing with contrapuntal relationships, variation, and phrasing. Various meters and mixtures of meters are conducted by the students, and the perception of primary harmonic functions is begun. In the second year, these elements are dealt with in increasingly complex contexts, the goal being the aural perception of all of them in an entire work.
B. Compositional Techniques
A three year sequence designed to train students in the analysis and composition of music in a wide variety of styles. Total analysis denotes the attempt to view each work from as many viewpoints as possible; concepts such as linear, associative, tonal, contextual, and rhythmic analysis are introduced, and their interaction considered. The relevance of analysis to composition, performance, interpretation, and understanding is demonstrated.
The first year includes free composition, contrapuntal theory (Fux and Salzer), tonal harmony (Mitchell, Rameau, Salzer, Schoenberg, Sessions), and rhythmic, motivic, and linear elaboration of tonal structures in composition and analysis (K.P.E. Bach, Koch (sic), Schoenberg). The second year intensifies the study of these elements, and introduces motivic and rhythmic analysis, and phrase structure. In the third year small scale works are written and completely analyzed. Contemporary techniques are also introduced and works analyzed.
C. Chamber Music Workshop
Chamber music workshop in the preparatory division (conducted by Benjamin Zander). 17 talented high-school age instrumentalists are introduced to analysis of music, and the relationship of analysis to effective performance. The students are encouraged to develop a critical approach to their own performance, in which a conception of a work and decisions about its interpretation are derived from an intensive study of its structure. The group meets every Saturday for more than three hours.
D. Compositional Techniques
Next year's plans include the completion of Mr. Cogan's text Compositional Techniques, which reflect the work of the IMCE courses; preparation of ear-training materials; and seminars, lectures, and other special events to explore further the relationship of theory to performance.
STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, POTSDAM, NEW YORK
ROBERT WASHBURN, Program Head
(music education majors)
Rudiments, emphasizing aural perception. Elementary tonal harmony.
The elements of music (rhythm, melody, harmony, counterpoint, texture, color, form) from Greek music to contemporary music.
Discussion and practice of meters and beat patterns; exercises in changing meters, asymmetric meters, other 20th Century devices.
D. Contemporary techniques
Discussion of melodic contour and organization; modal resourcesthe church modes, exotic scales, synthetic scales; melodic practices such as non-vocal melodic lines, additional scale resources, extended tonality, atonality, twelve-tone melodic writing; harmonic practices such as superimposed thirds, chords of addition or omission, nontertial sonorities and polychords; harmonic progression; rhythmic practices such as non-accentual rhythms, shifted accents, asymmetric divisions, asymmetric meters and changing meters and pulses; considerations of tonality such as free relationships of tonality, shifted tonality, dual modality, polymodality, and pandiatonicism. Participation of guest composers and performers in the course.
E. Composers and Styles
A survey of 20th century composers and styles, using A History of Music and Musical Styles, by Ulrich and Pisk.
F. Writing and Arranging
Writing and arranging music with the above techniques for elementary and secondary school use. The Guidelines for Composers of the Juilliard Repertory Project was used, as well as suggestions from the music education faculty. Exercises and pieces are written to be used in the college laboratory school. The college students gain experience in composing, orchestrating, transposition, conducting, rehearsal techniques, and ear-training which will relate to their future roles as music teachers.
G. Contemporary Music for Schools
A three week workshop in contemporary music for schools, for senior music education majors. Emphasis on writing and performing short pieces in contemporary styles for school use. Also, discussion of Orff and Kodaly methods, and preparation of a catalogue of contemporary music suitable for school use.
STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK AT BINGHAMTON HARPUR COLLEGE
KARL KORTE, Program Head
(liberal arts studentsmusic majors and general college students)
A. Basic Musicianship
Two semester sequence for 20 freshmen, team taught by William Klenz, Karl Korte, and David Buttolph. First semester concentrated on creative work, including conducting and performing. Rudiments were dealt with largely by the students individually, using Clough's Scales, Intervals, Keys and Triads. Second semester studies included:
- Counterpoint. Species 1, 2, 3, 4, and mixed, used in cantus firmus exercises and in free exercises on textsperformed, "dissected and repaired" in class. Study of Morley Canzonets for two voices, in preparation for two part settings of secular (modern) text.
- Study of atonal and twelve-tone techniques. Dissonant texture, sonority, color, rhythmic independence.
- Harmony. Primary triads and inversions. Harmonizations of melodies and bass lines. Study of chorales. Emphasis on linear treatment and part writing with constant reference to principles observed in counterpoint study. Study of the major triad in its 10 different functions in a major or minor tonality. Aural as well as visual understanding of relationships.
- Keyboardpractical application of harmonic study.
- Harmonic dictation combined with analysis and reconstruction of aurally perceived materialclass at blackboard.
B. Contemporary Techniques
Course in contemporary techniques for five juniors and seniors, taught by Mr. Korte. A rather free chronological approach is taken to 20th century compositional techniques. The students study, compose, and perform compositions based on these techniques. An improvisational group has been formed, working with whole tone scales, pentatonic scales, diminished scales, pandiatonic techniques, polytonality, etc. In addition, sightsinging and dictation, using the Modus Novus text.
PHILADELPHIA PUBLIC SCHOOLS
EDWIN HEILAKKA, Program Head
This new program, established in the fall of 1967, was generated by the former presence (for two years) of a Ford Foundation Young Composer. Now, three composers from the faculty of the Philadelphia Musical Academy will use composition as the basis for junior and senior high school classes being introduced to music. In a laboratory context of urban schools the students will write, discuss and perform their works. Administration of this program is handled by the Music Department of the Philadelphia Public Schools.
LEO KRAFT, Program Head
A course for the teaching of a contemporary music seminar to teachers already in the field will be offered by Queens College as its IMCE program.
VILLA MARIA INSTITUTE OF MUSIC
ALLEN GILES, Program Head
The program at Villa Maria will be based on the appearance of its resident quartet in the public school system to coach ensemble classes and give individual lessons.